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paper gnomon

a pointer to paper

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this series of small articles is the bycatch of my research. Often one finds interesting details that are worth to remember but are not relevant to the study. This is the place to collect these small clippings, snippets and scraps. The first entry was published on 2014-10-27 and the page will be added on irregularly.

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  • fibre tilt in machine made paper (2015-02-17)

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    not all things are created equal and paper forms no exception in this respect. In fact paper is highly anisotropic although it is not always perceived as such. Furthermore this anisotropy is not limited to paper’s two main properties of machine direction and felt or wire side.
         When pulp is poured on the wire (sieve) at the beginning of its path through the Fourdrinier1 it is still highly diluted and fibres are easily caught by the bumps and dents in the sieve. In addition, the diluted state of the pulp allows much fibre movement, hence the first caught fibres are combed in the moving direction of the sieve. This first layer starts to act as a sieve itself and the following fibres will also settle in directions other than the machine direction. The fibres remain mobile so long as there is water above the paper web as it is being formed. This phase playing out on the wire is called filtration. Once the amount of water has sunk below the surface of the fibres, the web closes and the fibres are more or less locked in their final position. This phase can be called thickening as more and more water drains out of the web.

    filtering thickening

    illustration 1: after: Bos, H et al. Het papierboek. Apeldoorn: VAPA, 1995 fig 5.1 p.200

    The closing of the paper is visible because the colour of the pulp appears to be white during the filtration stage (assuming the paper being made is to be white) due to the water above the fibres reflecting light. In the thickening phase the colour turns greyish because the fibres reflect less incident light and more scattered light. You can liken this phenomenon to the difference between a varnished and a non-varnished painting.
         The filtering property of the sheet-forming process brings with it a constant change in the down-flow of the water through the forming sheet. The water is pulled through the sieve helped by regularly placed foils and suction boxes. The water content of the web alters suddenly every time the wire passes over such a dewatering device. This causes continuous changes in the way the fibres are laid down and therefore results in paper with a highly layered structure. This layered structure can be observed in the finished product by peeling away the layers with pressure sensitive tape. In his book Watermerken en papierstructuur2 (watermarks and paper structure) the paper connoisseur and researcher Js. Hermans describes the separating of paper in its layers with the help of adhesive tape as his self-declared hobby. The layers he thus separates are about ten microns thick. He found a correlation between the thickness of the layers and the weight of the paper: a paper of 90 g/m² can be separated into nine layers and a paper of 40 g/m² into four layers. This means that any layer formed in paper weighs around 10 g/m² (tested on a normal and probably calendered paper).
         Paper conservators sometimes use the adhesive tape separation method to peel away unwanted additions to an object. An example of this is the conservation of the Gouda cartoons, in which old backing layers on many of the cartoons were peeled off using adhesive tape3. As described in the AIC Paper Conservation Catalogue, the paper conservator has a number of techniques at their disposal for removing unwanted additions to paper4. Although the catalogue does not mention the adhesive peel technique, a number of more widely used dry techniques such as scraping, peeling and splitting are discussed. As Fourdrinier-made paper has a distinctive machine direction, most paper conservators use this property and so peel off layers of board in the machine direction. In this way a larger piece can be removed in one go than is possible working against the grain. And because this is a repetitious activity, one eventually gets the feel of which direction the peeling works best. This is how this author often experienced that although machine direction peeling works best, not all machine directions are created equal. In the aforementioned Gouda cartoons it was also noticed that the direction in which the tape was pulled had a large influence on the layer thickness that could be removed.
         It can be helpful to have a good understanding of how fibres can be orientated in a sheet of paper, carton or board in order to use these techniques more effectively. To understand this orientation we have to look at paper and its fabrication more closely. We can describe paper using Cartesian coordinates as having three directions: x, y and z. In this system the x-coordinate describes the paper sheet from left to right and vice versa, the y-coordinate from top to bottom - bottom to top and the thickness as the z-direction: front to back - back to front.

    My Image

    illustration 2: flow of pulp out of the headbox onto the sieve: the wire

         During formation paper fibres in the x-y plane can be oriented in the machine direction, which is dominant on the wire side, and in the cross direction, which occurs more towards the felt side. But fibres also entangle themselves in the z-plane of the paper: one end of a fibre can be near the wire side while the other end is nearer the felt side. This helps in improving the tear resistance of the paper since fibres extend from one layer to another, thus making the whole structure stronger, which is what a paper-maker wants. This property can be controlled on the paper machine to a certain extent by regulating the speed of the pulp flow from the headbox in relation to the speed of the wire. When the speed of the wire is greater than the speed of the head-box, the Fourdrinier operates in what is called ‚drag’ and when the opposite is the case the machine runs in ‚rush’. Drag and rush influence the tilt of fibres: a machine in drag has more fibres angled forward in the machine direction than a machine in rush. Macgregor5 explains this in a more scientific, engineering-like, manner. The difference in angle to the x-y-plane is minute but still gives an anisotropy in the z-direction. Although the exact measurement of tilt angle is not possible at this date6, this property of paper is exactly what we might already have experienced while peeling off paper or board. When the machine direction is found, peeling in one of the two possible directions turns out to be easier because a knife, scalpel or other instrument catches fibres more easily when they more or less protrude from the paper7 and, more importantly, the knife can slide under the fibres and does not skid over them. This also applies to the tape peeling method as shown in the following illustration:

    My Image

    illustration 3: schematic representation of fibre tilt. V: velocity, h: headbox, w: wire. red arrows indicate optimum fibre tear out and direction of knife (after MacGregor).

    The tilt of fibres in the z-direction thus influences the efficiency of the peeling action and creates an optimum direction, either in the machine direction or opposing it. In multi-layered glued boards this can change per layer since it is possible that the layers are glued after a roll is rewound. Rewinding a roll of paper reverses the machine direction to the anti-machine direction. It is worthwhile trying to find this optimum direction as it can save a lot of time. The fibre tilt also explains why a paper can be more easily skinned in one direction than in another. Skinning is also influenced by the predominant difference in fibre orientation between wire and felt sides of the paper.
         It should be clear from the above that the investigation of these properties before mechanically treating a sheet of machine-made paper can help improve the overall treatment, be it avoiding surface damage or working more efficiently.

    1. the term Fourdrinier is used here to distinguish between the two types of paper machine: Fourdrinier and cylinder machine.
    2. Hermans, Js. Watermerken en papierstructuur. Amsterdam: Intergrafia, 1972
    3. Staal, Monique. 'The conservation of the cartoons of the Gouda windows (2005-2011)'. in: Ruyven-Zeman, Zsuzsanna et al ed. The cartoons of the Sint-Janskerk in Gouda. Delft: Eburon, 2011: p.258-271
    5. MacGregor, Michael A. 'Some impacts of paper making on paper structure'. Paper Technology, vol. 42, nº 3 (2001): p.30-44
    6. [MacGregor, 2001-4] "No method presently exists to measure the degree of fiber tilt in paper. Instead, surface tape peels can indicate, with many paper grades, the presence of grain and, by the amount of fiber pulled out, even give a subjective idea of the tilt degree."
    7. although this is technically not true: the paper is pressed and often calendered so the surface is smooth.

  • progressive widening of papermachines (2014-10-27)

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    Since Robert’s invention in 1798 papermachines have become ever wider and faster. This is not only due to the engineering feat of building the machines but required a whole biotope of involved industries as well. Amongst others the traction of the diverse parts of the machine had to be improved and also the sieves needed new ways of weaving being developed. And what about the making of the necessary felts? Apart from that chemical additives in the pulp mixture that aided dewatering and felting of the fibres where a necessity for machines to run at a higher speed. Control over the properties of the pulp was evidently of the utmost importance. Meanwhile the first machine could produce paper of 64 centimeters wide. The widest machine nowadays is 1180 centimeters (in Hainan, China: download a PDF with the specifications here). The paper produced on this machine is 18,5 times wider than that from Robert’s founding machine. And then we have to remember that the speed difference is even greater than the width difference. The speed difference between the Two Waters machine and the one in Hainan is 1:283. The second Fourdrinier machine from 1805 installed in Two Waters had a speed of 6 meters per minute which means that the surface of paper produced was 9,12 m2 per minute. The worlds largest papermachine of our time runs at a maximum speed of 1700 meters per minute thus producing 20.060 m2 in that timeframe. That is a staggering 2200 times larger surface than that produced in 1805. On this machine the hydrated fibre in the pulp becomes entangled in the paper web that is continuously wound on a reel in 21 seconds: quite a dramatic change in environment.

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  • sorting rags: finesse in a dirty job (2014-12-15)

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    Stacks Image 450

    Rudin, Bo. Making paper: a look into the history of an ancient craft. Vällingby: Rudins, 1990 p73

    Sorting rags has always been seen as a dirty, unhealthy and even dangerous job. Dirty because many rags were not only not clean, but also dusty, old and worn; unhealthy because many rag sorters (mostly women) became ill due to all kinds of bodily contaminations present on the rags and, in times of contagious diseases (such as cholera), even bacteria. The danger comes from the possibility of ‘spontaneous conflagration’ that befell many a rag warehouse and reduced them to ashes.
    In order to make a good quality paper it was necessary to sort rags according to pre-defined types: the further the different kinds of rags were sorted the more uniform the resulting paper. By mixing different kinds of rags it was also possible to influence parameters such as colour, strength and rattle of a given paper.
    The rag trade added value by pre-sorting rags in general types. Often the paper manufacturers would post-sort rags in order to refine the paper making process. Voorn1 remarks that the high quality of the paper from the Zaan depended upon rigoureus sorting at the mill, even fining rag sorters for mistakes made. Most sorting classifications were based on three criteria: the material, the colour and the quality. With these three building blocks further distinctions were made, the material being up until ~1780 mostly linen and hemp then after that also cotton and jute rags came into play, the colours being white, grey, blue, red, black or dark-coloured. The quality of rags is often classified as new via worn to soiled. Other aspects often taken in account are provenance and past use of the rags. Rags obviously came from various regions and these regions often also denoted a quality or lack thereof. Rags that were collected in more affluent regions were generally of a better quality than rags from poor regions that were worn to the limit of their useful life. The American Davis2 in his 1886 book gives several sources for rags, he mentions amongst others Alexandria-, Belgian-, British-, Constantinople-, Dutch-, Hamburg-, Japanese-, Königsberg-, Leghorn and Liban rags. That means that rags for the paper industry were imported from (and collected in) all corners of the world. As Davis mentioned, an important route for rags to be exported to England and the United States ran via Hamburg where a letter system3 was used to denote the different qualities: SPFFF meaning super fine white linen, FWWS fine white striped, SFX sail cloth and so on (see list below).

    SPFFF - sup. f. w. lein,
    SPFF - feine f. w. lein,
    SPF - 2 Sorte f. w. lein,
    FF - halbweiße f. w. lein,
    CSPFFF - sup. w. bw,
    CSPFF - feine w. bw,
    LFB - blaue leinene,
    CFB - blaubaumwollene,
    CFX - graue baumwollene,
    LFX - graue leinene,
    FR - rothe baumwollene,

    SFX - Segeltuch,
    FWWS - weiß gestreifte
    FWW - weiß flanell,
    FWS - bunt gestrickte,
    FW - weichwollene,
    HW - harte wollene,
    NCWC - neue Tuch,
    CWC - geschittene Tuch,
    CW - Tuch- und unges,
    BB - Bombassin, (halbwolle),
    BW - Beyderwand, (große Wolle).

    This indicates a further formalisation of the trade. In the middle of the 20th century rags were classified and sorted in an even more bewilderingly intricate manner. From the Degaast4 book it is clear that rag collection in Paris followed strict regulations and that rag collectors were highly organised. The rag trade even had their own weekly journal, ‘le Chiffonnier de Paris’ appropriately subtitled ‘Journal des Matières Premières’, which translates to Journal of raw materials.

    Stacks Image 389

    Reuse and valorisation of waste is of all time but even so such a differentiation is remarkable. The table by Degaast that lists types of rags consists of 382 separate types spread over 17 categories, not all of which were meant for the paper industry: rags for fertilising soil and rags for polishing other materials are also mentioned. That means that, although the ragman stood in very low regard, the profession did require a sharp brain and a quick eye. It seems unlikely that such knowledge was acquired through a formal training. The usual preconception of coarseness that clings to the ragman is in my opinion entirely unjustified given the highly discerning and concentrated purposefullness that is apparent from the list below (which, by the way, could be recited like a poem). Luckily both French and English are included, which again shows that the rag trade operated internationally.

    For reasons of readability the chifonnier’s list is given below the notes.

    1. Voorn, Henk. Papierfabricage in de eerste helft van de negentiende eeuw. 's-Gravenhage: Vereniging vrienden van de Koninklijke Biblotheek, 1975 p17
    2. Davis, Charles Thomas. The manufacture of paper: being a description of the various processes for the fabrication, coloring, and finishing of every kind of paper. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird & Co, 1886 p 88-92
    3. Mierzinski, Stanislaus. Handbuch der praktischen Papier-Fabrikation. Band 1. Wien: Hartleben's Verlag, 1886 p17
    4. Degaast, Georges, Germaine Rigaud. 'Classification centrale des établissements Soulier'. in: Degaast, Georges, Germaine Rigaud. les Supports de la pensé, tome I Historique: la première partie de l’étude Papiers, cartons et celluloses modernes. Le monde et la science tome 53-59. Paris: Librairie Folatre, 1945: p.1882-1888

    rognures neuves
    toile blanche neuve
    toile écrue neuve pur fils nº 1
    toile écrue neuve nº 2
    toile écrue neuve rayée couleur
    toile grise neuve extra de coupe
    toile grise neuve nº 1
    toile grise neuve nº 2
    toile grise neuve rayée couleur
    toile à voile fil neuve
    toile grise fil et jute neuf
    toile grise fil et coton neuf
    toile à matelas fil et coton
    toile jute et coton neuf
    jute neuf souple
    toile bleue neuve pur fil
    toile bleue neuve foncée
    toile marron neuve
    toile verte neuve
    toile noire neuve
    fils gris mêlés
    fils blancs et crèmes classés
    fils gris classés
    fils gris gros
    calicot blanc neuf coupe extra
    calicot blanc neuf nº 1
    calicot blanc neuf nº 2
    fleuriste blanc neuf
    calicot blanc neuf molletonné
    calicot blanc neuf menu
    calicot blanc neuf triplure
    coutils blancs neufs
    corsets blancs neufs
    rognures de bonneterie blanche
    coton écru neuf de coupe extra
    coton écru neuf nº 1
    coton écru neuf nº 2
    coton écru neuf nº 3
    toile à voile coton écru neuf
    molleton écru neuf
    rideaux neuf écrus et blancs
    tulle neuf écru et blanc
    menus rideaux neufs
    flanellette claire neuve
    coton clair neuf imprimé
    coton clair neuf oxfords
    coton clair neuf doublures
    coton clair neuf mêlé
    coton demi-clair neuf
    menus coton clair neuf
    coton neuf rayé noir et blanc
    flanellette foncée neuve
    pilou neuf
    coton foncé neuf nº 1
    coton foncé neuf nº 2
    rognures de bonneterie claire
    corsets clairs neufs mastic
    corsets clairs neufs mêlés
    menus corsets clairs neufs
    coton ardoise neuve
    coton bleu uni neuf
    coton bleu mixte uni neuf
    coton bleu neuf mêlé rayé blanc
    flanellette kaki neuve
    coton kaki neuf
    coton marron neuf
    velours horizon neuf
    velours marron neuf et foncé
    satinette noire neuve extra
    noire neuve moleskine
    coton noir neuf de coupe
    finette noire neuve
    coton noir neuf glacé
    flanellette rouge neuve
    coton rouge uni pur
    coton rouge neuf glacé
    coton rouge et blanc neuf
    déchets neufs mêlés menus
    coutils foncés neufs
    rognures de jute noir neuf
    flanellettes bleutées claires
    couleurs neuves mêlées

    chiffons blancs vieux
    toile blanche nº 1 fine extra
    toile blanche nº 1 fine
    toile blanche nº 1 libre forte
    toile blanche nº 2 propre
    toile blanche nº 1 campagne
    toile blanche nº 2 campagne
    toile blanche nº 3 demi-propre
    toile blanche nº 4 demi~sale
    toile blanche nº 5 très sale
    toiles blanches lavées
    toiles blanches raies rouges
    coutures de toiles blanches
    treillis militaires nº 1
    treillis militaires nº 2
    coton blanc nº 1 extra
    coton blanc propre nº 1 et 2
    coton blanc nº 3 extra
    coton blanc nº 4 sans gras
    coton blanc nº 5
    coton blanc outshots paris
    coton blanc nº 3 paris
    coton blanc nº 4 paris sale
    bas et tricots coton blanc nº 1 et 2
    bas et tricots coton blanc nº 2
    bas et tricots coton blanc nº 3
    bas et tricots coton blanc nº 4
    cache~corsets blancs propres
    cache~corsets blancs sales
    tricots blancs crochet
    passementerie blanche
    gants blancs
    cols et manchettes propres
    mousseline blanche nº 1 et 2
    rideaux guipure nº 1 et 2 propres
    rideaux guipure nº 2 et 3 paris
    rideaux guipure sales
    toile à voile coton blanche nº 1 extra
    toile à voile coton blanche et claires
    déchets menus blancs vieux
    corsets blancs bruts
    toile blanche nº 3 paris
    cols et manchettes paris
    cols et manchettes sales
    mousseline blanche paris
    cotons blancs nº 2 campagne
    toiles blanches dures nº 2
    toiles blanches dures nº 3

    chiffons couleur vieux
    coton clair pâle
    coton clair nº 1 supérieur
    coton clair campagne
    coton clair vieux nº 2
    toile à voile coton tanné
    déchets de bâche coton
    coton vichy pur
    coton foncé vieux
    coton rouge pur
    coton rosé clair nº 1
    coton rouge et rosé nº 2
    bas rouges et rosés
    doublures claires
    bas et tricots extra clairs
    bas et tricots couleurs mêlées sans rayures noires
    velours mêlés
    velours clairs et blancs
    velours foncés et demi-clairs
    vieilles couvertures
    coton bleu clair
    coton bleu foncé
    cotons bleus mêlés
    vieux plumiers
    toile bleue propre nº 1
    toile bleue nº 2
    toile bleue mêlée
    toile bleue bourrelier
    coton noir pur
    bas noirs coton pur
    chaine coton vieille mêlée
    passementerie couleur
    vieux tapis
    couleurs rosées demi-claires
    couleurs teintes vives
    bas noirs délisiérés
    bas noirs nº 2 sales
    cotons noirs nº 2 sales
    bas noirs et foncés à rayures

    chiffons de bulle gris
    bulle gris nº 1 extra
    bulle gris dur nº 1
    bulle gris nº 2
    bulle gris rayé couleur
    bulle blanc
    toile grise demi-fil jute
    toile à voile pur fil nº 1
    toile à voile pur fil nº 2
    toile à voile fil tannée
    tabliers marchands de vins
    bas coton très clairs
    bas coton nuances bleues
    bas coton gris fer
    bas cachou clair
    bas cachou foncé

    cordages et ficelles
    grosses cordes chanvre blanc
    cordelettes chanvre blanc nº 1
    cordelettes blanches nº 2
    grosses cordes chanvre goudronnées
    cordes chanvre goudronnées nº 2
    petites cordes chanvre goudronnées nº 3
    petites cordes chanvre tannées
    gros filets chanvre blanc
    filets fins chanvre blanc
    ficelles blanches neuves nº 1
    ficelles blanches nº 2
    ficelles blanches nº 3
    déchets (de classage) de cordes et ficelles
    cordes et ficelles jute
    ficelles blanches pailleuses

    cordages manille
    grosses cordes manille blanche
    petites cordes manille blanche
    effilures de corde manille blanche
    grosses cordes manille coaltarées
    grosses cordes manille 1/2 goudronnées
    grosses cordes manille tannées
    petites cordes manille 1/2 goudronnées
    petites cordes manille tannées
    effilures de cordes manille 1/2 goudronnées
    câbles transmission en manille
    filets en manille
    cordes et ficelles sizal
    cordes coco

    soie artificielle
    jerseys de soie couleur
    jerseys de soie blanche
    bas noirs de soie
    bas couleur de soie

    chiffons de jute
    jute neuf gris souple
    phormium propre nº 1
    phormium propre campagne
    phormium propre nº 3
    phormium sombre et tendre nº 4
    emballages coton tout-venant
    emballages coton gros
    emballages coton fin
    emballages Australie
    laizes Amérique
    laizes Australie
    culs-ronds Australie recousus
    culs-ronds Australie ouverts
    phormium fin de serpillière
    chutes de sacs demi-fins
    chutes de sacs Australie
    sacs à ciment

    déchets textiles et divers
    déchets de fils coton mêlés
    déchets de fils coton blanc
    déchets de fil coton couleur
    déchets de fil coton blanc terni
    déchets de fil coton sales
    grosses cordes de coton
    ficelles coton blanches
    ficelles coton couleur
    cordes à broches
    grattures d'apprêt
    ouate blanche propre
    ouate mêlée
    ouate couleur
    soie blanche vieille
    soie couleur vieille
    soie couleur neuve
    tissus crins
    taquets mêlés
    taquets nº 1
    taquets nº 2
    rognures de taquets neufs
    lames cirées
    chapeaux de feutre souple

    chiffons pour engrais
    gros drap et savates feutres
    cuir et savates cuir
    colle à poil

    chiffons pour essuyage et polissage
    grands morceaux toile blanche propre
    grands morceaux coton blanc nº 1
    grands morceaux coton blanc nº 2
    grands morceaux coton blanc nº 3
    grands morceaux blancs nº 3 paris
    grands morceaux coton extra clair propre
    grands morceaux coton clair à laver
    grands morceaux couleurs mêlées à laver
    grands morceaux couleurs foncées à laver
    grands morceaux chaîne coton fins à laver
    garats grands morceaux
    grands morceaux blancs nº 4
    grands morceaux couleur nº 4
    toile à vernir
    essuyages toile blanche nº 1
    essuyages mousseline blanche
    essuyages blancs nº 1 extra
    essuyages blancs propres
    essuyages blancs nº 3 tachés
    essuyages extra clairs lavés
    essuyages couleurs mêlées nº 1 lavés
    essuyages couleurs mêlées nº 2 lavés
    essuyages foncés lavés
    essuyages chaîne coton lavés
    doublures écrues pour polissage
    bâches coton pour polissage
    essuyages coton blancs nº 2 ternes
    essuyages toiles blanches nº 2 ternes
    essuyages tricot blanc fin nº 1
    essuyages tricot blanc fin nº 2
    essuyages extra clairs moyens
    essuyages blancs propres moyens
    essuyages blancs ternes moyens
    essuyages couleur nº 1 paris
    essuyages couleur nº 2 paris
    essuyages couleur nº 3 paris

    chiffons blancs
    toile blanche nº 2 forte
    toile blanche nº 3 forte
    toile blanche nº 3 ordinaire
    molleton blanc
    mousseline nº 2 (sale)
    corsets blancs délissés
    déchets papeterie blancs sales
    grands morceaux toile 2
    coton nº 2 tendre
    coton blanc et toile blanche nº 6
    toile blanche délissée
    blancs mêlés
    blancs sales mêlés

    rognures neuves
    toile grise encollés neuve
    toile grise neuve mousseline
    tulle neuf nº 2
    blancs neufs mêlés
    coton neuf rouge et blanc imprimé
    velours neufs clairs
    velours neuf couleur
    pilou neuf rayé rouge
    tissus ameublement

    bulles gris et cordages
    toile grise tendre
    toile dure foncée
    toiles peintes
    tuyaux en toiles
    toile à voile blanche nº 3
    toile à voile demi-fil coton
    serviette raffinerie pur fil
    serviette raffinerie fil et jute
    serviette raffinerie jute
    serviettes raffinerie coton
    serviette raffinerie coton et fil
    ficelles neuves mêlées
    ficelles fines neuves
    cordelettes neuves
    filets noirs
    rognures fils lavettes
    cordes longues à emballer
    ficelles de paquets de coton

    chiffons couleur
    doublures ardoises
    doublures mêlées
    bas couleurs claires
    tricots couleurs claires
    bas noirs nº 2
    bas noirs rayés blancs
    bas noirs rayés couleur
    velours blancs
    velours couleurs
    bleus mêlés toile et coton
    coton couleur sale
    déchets papeterie couleur
    vieilles couvertures claires
    vieilles couvertures foncées
    essuyages couleurs sales
    garats petits morceaux
    garats en pièces

    chiffons de jute
    phormium neuf rigide
    phormium neuf demi·fil
    phormium neuf couleur
    phormium mêlé
    ficelles suint
    emballages Buenos-Ayres
    laizes fines
    laizes diverses

    déchets textiles et divers
    déchets coton blanc nº 2
    déchets de fil coton blanchis
    déchets de fil coton bleu
    encollés blancs
    déchets de fil coton couleur Chauny
    déchets de fil coton nord
    déchets de fil coton Flers
    déchets de fil coton Laval
    déchets de fil couleur nº 2
    déchets de fil couleurs sales
    déchets de fil coton ternis
    déchets de fil coton très sales
    lames blanches
    lames blanches avec maillons
    lames cirées avec maillons
    corde coton blanche coupée
    ouate blanche nº 2
    déchets de ouate

    new cuttings
    new white linens
    new cream linens
    nº 2 cream linens
    coloured striped cream linens
    best, new grey linens
    nº 1 new grey linens
    nº 2 new grey linens
    coloured striped grey linens
    new grey canvas
    half jute grey linens
    half cotton grey linens
    half cotton mattress linens
    half cotton jute cuttings
    new soft jute cuttings
    new blue linens
    new dark blue linens
    new brown linens
    new green linens
    new solid black linens
    mixed grey linen threads
    cream linen thread.
    grey linen threads
    coarse grey linen threads
    best white shirt cuttings
    nº 1 white shirt cutting
    nº 2 white shirt cutting
    new florist cuttings
    new white molliton cuttings
    new small shirt cuttings
    new starched cuttings
    new strong white cutting
    new corset white cutting
    new white knitt. cutting
    best unbleached cuttings
    nº 1 unbleached cutting
    nº 2 unbleached cuttings
    soiled unbleached cuttings
    unbleached cotton canvas
    unbleached molliton
    white and unbleached curtain cuttings
    white and unbleached lace cuttings
    small white curtain cuttings
    best new light flannellettes
    best new light prints
    new light oxfords
    new light silecias
    new light cuttings
    half light cuttings
    small light cuttings
    white and black cuttings
    new dark flannellettes
    new colored flannellettes
    first new dark cuttings
    second new dark cuttings
    new light knitts
    best new mastic corset cuttings
    light corset cuttings
    small light corset cuttings
    new slates
    new solid blues
    new mixed solid blues
    new striped white blues
    new khaki flannellettes
    new khaki cuttings
    new brown cuttings
    new horizon fustians
    new brown fustians and darks
    best soft black satinets
    new soft black cuttings
    new solid black cuttings
    new soft black cuttings
    new glazed black cuttings
    new solid red flannellettes
    new solid red cuttings
    new glazed red cuttings
    new striped white red cuttings
    new coloured shopperies small cuttings
    new dark jeans
    new black jute cuttings
    new light bleu flannellettes
    new mixed coloured cuttings

    old white rags
    nº 1 best fine white linens
    nº 1 good fine white linens
    nº 1 strong fibre white linens
    nº 2 clean white linens
    nº 1 country white linens
    nº 2 country white linens
    nº 3 white linens
    nº 4 white linens
    nº 5 white linens
    washed white linens
    red striped white linens
    white linen seams
    clean military linens
    nº 2 military linens
    extra nº 1 clean white couons
    nº 1- 2 clean white cottons
    nº 3 extra white cottons
    nº 4 extra white cottons
    nº 5 soiled white cottons
    paris outshots white cottons
    nº 3 paris white cottons
    nº 4 paris soiled whi(e çouons
    nº 1-2 white knitts
    nº 2 white knitts
    nº 3 white knitts
    nº 4 white knitts
    clean fine white knitts
    soiled fine white knitts
    coarse white knitted
    white braids
    white gloves
    cuffs and collars clean
    mixed white muslins
    nº 1 and 2 white curtains clean
    nº 2 and 3 paris white curtains soiled
    soiled white curtains
    nº 1 white cotton canvas white and canvas
    light and white cotton canvas
    white shopperies
    white corsets
    nº 3 paris white linens
    paris cuffs and collars
    soiled cuffs and collars
    paris mixed white muslins
    country nº 2 white cottons
    nº 2 coarse white linens
    nº 3 coarse white linens

    old coloured rags
    clean pale light prints
    first good light prints
    country mixed light prints
    nº 2 light prints free from blacks
    brown cotton canvas
    coloured canvas
    pure vichys
    old dark cottons
    old solid reds
    nº 1 light reds free of blacks
    nº 2 mixed reds
    rose stockings
    light linings
    clean pale light knitts
    coloured knitts and stockings without blacks
    mixed coloured fustians
    light fustians and whites
    dark fustians and half light
    old quilts
    old light blue cotton
    old dark blue cotton
    mixed blue cotton
    old featherticks
    nº 1 clean blue linens
    nº 2 soiled blue linens
    mixed blue linens
    horse collars blue linens
    solid black cottons
    solid black stockings nº 1 clean
    old satinetts
    old coloured fringes
    old carpets
    old soft drogguet
    medium light rose cottons
    medium light colored cottons
    edged black cotton stockings
    soiled nº 2 black stockings
    soiled nº 2 black cottons
    coloured and white striped stockings

    canvas and grey linens
    nº 1 extra grey linens
    nº 1 strong grey linens
    nº 2 grey linens
    coloured striped grey linens
    coarse white linens
    half jute grey linens
    strong nº 1 white linen canvas
    nº 2 white linen canvas
    brown linen canvas
    dark linen aprons
    dark linen mattress
    extra light cottons stockings
    blue caftan stockings
    grey cotton stockings
    light tan stockings
    dark brown stockings

    ropes & twines
    large white hemp ropes
    small white hemp ropes
    small nº 2 hemp ropes
    large tarred hemp ropes
    nº 2 small tarred hemp ropes
    nº 3 tarred hemp waste
    small tanned hemp strings
    large white hemp nets
    fine white hemp nets
    nº 1 white strings
    nº 2 white strings
    nº 3 white strings
    ropes nets and strings waste
    jute ropes and twines

    large white manilla ropes
    small white manilla ropes
    white manilla shakings
    large very tarred manilla ropes
    large half tarred manilla ropes
    large tanned manilla ropes
    small half tarred manilla ropes
    small tanned manilla ropes
    half tarred manilla shakings
    manilla cables
    manilla nets
    white sizal strings and ropes
    coco ropes

    artificial silk
    coloured silk jumpers
    white silk jerseys
    black silk stockings
    colored silk stockings

    jute rags
    new-soft jute cuttings
    nº 1 clean bright light bagging
    clean country bagging
    clean sound bagging
    nº 4 dirty and dark bagging
    mill run cotton tares
    coarse cotton tares or gunny bagging
    fine cotton tares
    Australian and heavy bagging
    gunny large pieces
    Australian large pieces
    Australian pouches first quality
    Australian pouches with a slit
    old fine light bagging
    clean jute bags cuttings
    clean Australian cuttings
    cement bagging

    waste & miscellaneous
    mixed threads
    white threads
    coloured threads
    half soiled white threads
    soiled threads
    large cotton ropes
    small cotton ropes and strings
    colored cotton strings
    oily cotton bands
    clean cotton wadding
    mixed cotton wadding
    colored cotton wadding
    old white silk
    old colored silk
    new colored silk
    old hair cloth
    mixed buffalo pickers
    nº 1 buffalo pickers
    nº 2 buffalo pickers
    buffalo punchings
    waxed harness looms
    hat soft felts

    fertilizing materials
    felt slippers and cloth
    leather slippers
    old furs for fertilizing purposes

    wipers & polishing materials
    clean white linen large pieces
    nº 1 extra white cotton large pieces
    nº 2 clean white cotton large pieces
    nº 3 half clean white cotton large pieces
    nº 3 paris white cotton large pieces
    clean extra light cotton large pieces
    extra light cotton large pieces
    coloured cotton large pieces
    dark cotton large pieces
    linsey cotton large pieces
    large misprints
    nº 4 soiled white large pieces
    nº 4 soiled colored large pieces
    polishing white clean linens
    washed white linen wipers
    washed white muslins wipers
    washed nº 1 extra white cotton wipers
    washed clean white cotton wipers large sizes
    washed nº 3 white cotton wipers
    washed extra light wipers
    washed nº 1 coloured wipers
    washed nº 2 coloured wipers
    washed dark wipers
    washed linsey wipers
    polishing large linings
    polishing canvas
    washed faded nº 2 cotton wipers
    washed faded nº 2 linen wipers
    washed nº 1 fine knitted cottons
    washed nº 2 faded knitted cottons
    washed small size pale light wipers
    washed small size white cotton wipers
    washed small size faded white cotton wipers
    washed nº 1 all colours wipers
    washed nº 2 ail colours wipers
    washed nº 3 all colours wipers

    white rags
    nº 2 strong white linens
    nº 3 strong white linens
    ordinary nº 3 white linens
    old canton flannell
    soiled white muslin
    white corsets ready for use
    soiled white shopperies
    nº 2 linen large pieces
    nº 2 soft cottons
    nº 6 very tender soiled rags
    white linens free from seams
    mixed old whites
    mixed soiled whites

    new cuttings
    new grey starchy linens
    new spanish linens
    new nº 2 white laces
    new mixed cuttings
    new red and white prints
    new light fustians
    new coloured fustians
    new red and black flannellettes
    furniture coverings

    grey linens & ropes
    tender grey linens
    strong dark linens
    painted canvas
    linen canvas hose
    nº 3 white linen canvas
    half cotton linen canvas
    sugar bags pure linen
    sugar bags half cotton linen
    sugar bags jute
    sugar bags pure cotton
    sugar bags half cotton linen
    new mixed strings and twines
    new hemp fine twines
    new small ropes
    dark nets
    lavettes shakings
    red twines
    hemp baling ropes
    cotton packing twines

    colored rags
    old slate linings
    old mixed linings
    light coloured stockings
    light coloured knitts
    second black stockings
    white striped black stockings
    coloured striped black stockings
    white fustians
    coloured fustians
    mixed blue linen and coton
    soiled coloured rags
    old coloured shopperies
    old light quilts
    old dark quilts
    mixed soiled coloured wipers
    small misprints
    large misprints

    jute rags
    starchy new jute cuttings
    half cotton jute cuttings
    new coloured jute cuttings
    mixed bagging
    woollens jute strings
    light wool tares
    mixed jute large pieces

    waste & miscellaneous
    nº 2 white cotton threads
    bleached cotton threads
    blue cotton threads
    white warps
    coloured threads Chauny
    coloured threads north
    coloured threads Flers
    coloured threads Laval
    nº 2 coloured threads
    soiled coloured threads
    half soiled white threads
    dirty white threads
    white harness looms
    metal white harness looms
    metal waxed harness looms
    white cotton rope cut
    second white cotton wadding
    batting waste