figure 79

above, raw, unbeaten, convoluted cotton fibre at 100x, note thick fibre edges at left of the fibre (sample 136); below, cotton in a 1886 printing paper containing 37.5% linen and cotton rag (Mierzinski sample 040). A red line (1) shows between two former convolutions that have been lost during the papermaking process. Note the extremely fibrillated fibre end (2) that was probably caused by (Hollander beater) beating with relative high consistency and low to medium beating pressure, resulting in a fibre rupture [micrographs and z-stacks, BvV].

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